Marble is recrystallization grains of calcite (limestone) or dolomite rock under high temperatures and pressures. This feature of marble differentiates character of the rock as a metamorphic rock when compared to sedimentary limestone rock.
The word ‘’marble’’ derives from the Greek marmaros, ‘’shining stone’’ (OED). This stem is also the basis for the English word ‘’marmoreal’’ meaning ‘’marble- like’’. The Marmoros word also gave the name to this island due to the marble coming from Marmara Island.

Marble has many applications for structural and decorative uses. For decorative and architectural uses it is mainly used for wall claddings, floorings, sculptures and bases, stairways and pavements, fireplaces and sinks. Most of the ancient spectacular monuments and buildings were built with marble. Greeks, Romans, Ottomans decorated their temples, mosques, palaces, statues and cathedrals with marble and marble engravings.

Romans and Ottomans use marble as a hygienic material for constructing their hamams, baths, tubs and steam rooms. By using marble both these civilizations attain elegant appearance and healthiness under the same construction.

Indoor Marble Usage Areas                                                                  Outdoor Marble usage Areas

*Floors and Walls                                                                                    *Statues & Bases

*Stairs & Steps                                                                                         *Columns

*Bathrooms & Showers                                                                         *Outdoor Fireplaces

*Countertops & Backsplashes                                                              *House Walls

*Marble Sinks & Vessels                                                                        *Outside Stairs

*Hallways & Foyers                                                                                 *Pavements

*Fireplaces                                                                                                *Fountains

Because natural structure of marble; colors change from pure white to onyx black. This natural character makes marble unique and none can look exactly like the other.

Different colors and patterns of marble formed by mineral impurities for instance marble containing hematite are reddish in color, marble that has limonite is yellow and marble with serpentine is green in color. These various impurities determine the color of marble under the high pressure and temperature during the metamorphism

Marble slabs and tiles are either polished or honed. Polished tiles provide a luxurious appearance; despite they are extremely slippery on wet ground. Therefore, in wet areas honed marble tiles offer more grip and are considered safe.

Recently, the popularity of ‘’tumbled marble’’ has increased. These rustic tiles look like travertine. They have a rough finish, often have little pits full of crystal, and have an uneven edge which is usually rounded at the corners. They are available in many sizes and are popular for backsplashes, showers, and flooring. The hand carved look provides an excellent way to counteract the formal air which marble typically lends to a room.

Other marble surface treatments that are applied but less demanded are flamed, brushed and calibrated surfaces. (Cleft, Gauged)

According to Marble Institute of America (MIA) marble classification embody the working sturdiness or the level of difficulty that the fabricator and/or installer will likely experience during fabrication and installation of the stone.

Grade A: Marble with uniform and favorable working qualities; containing few geological flaws or voids.

Grade B: Marbles similar in character to the preceding group; but with less favorable working qualities; may have natural faults and/or dry veins; a limited amount of waxing, sticking and filling may be required.

Grade C:  Marbles with some variation qualities; geological flaws, voids, veins and lines of separation are common. It is standard practice to repair these variations by one or more of several methods- waxing, sticking, filling or cementing. Liners and other forms of reinforcement are used when necessary.

Grade D: Marbles similar to the preceding group, but containing a larger proportion of natural faults, maximum variations in working qualities, and requiring more of the same methods of finishing. This group comprises many of the highly colored marbles prized for their decorative values.

On marble blocks, average 1 m³ = 2, 7 tons.

There are two slab thicknesses most commonly chosen when selecting/fabricating granite; 2 cm is ¾  inch thick & 3 cm is  1 ¼ inch thick.